Volume 20 / 2005
Gheorghe ZAMAN, Zizi GOSCHIN
Abstract: The paper proposes and applies a region classification method, within Romania’s economic complex, depending on the level and dynamics of regional output indicators (for instance, GDP – industrial production, labour productivity, etc.) per capita as compared to the average size on national economy for a given period of time. There are four types of regions, that is: developed regions in progress; developed regions in decline; underdeveloped regions in progress; underdeveloped regions. The typological categories of development regions in Romania are determined for the period 1994–2001 by making use of the GDP per capita level and dynamics at the regions’ level against the average on national economy. Based on the indices method we computed the contribution of qualitative factors (labour productivity) and quantitative ones (employed population) to the regional per capita GDP and the regional labour productivity, determining the annual average growth required by a underdeveloped region for leap-frogging in a given time-horizon, the gap separating it from the average level of the analysed indicator at national level.
Keywords: economic growth; development regions; labour productivity
JEL Classification: O47.
Abstract: In its first part, this study deals with some issues that have amassed within EU, practically in all fields of activity, especially after the last wave of enlargement, thus the fears of deepened distance between EU and its population being brought up to light. EU undergoes an identity crisis with multiple facets: geographical, socio-economic, moral, ideologic, and strategic ones, etc. The main goal of EU for the last three decades is no longer population welfare, but “competitiveness” , and the chief means of increasing it is production costs’ diminution that occurs by massive layoffs and wage decreases. EU enlargement and in-depth processes have created new issues such as enterprises relocalisation, immigration, social protection system, and foregoing the chance to dominate the world. The second part analyses the consequences related to the turmoil within EU: co-existence of welfare and poverty (increased unemployment, growth of discrepancies between countries); massive absence at the latest polls; lack of confidence in political personalities; risks of enlargement without previous operated in-depth changes, etc. Despite its flagrant shortcommings it is less probable that the EU would dissolve. It amassed a lot of red-tape (bureaucracy) and embodied so many interests, so that the most likely development seems to be an even greater enlargement, until it will become completely ineffective. The single means of improving EU is that populations become aware of the other side of the medal.
Keywords: competitiveness; welfare; poverty; EU enlargement.
JEL Classification: F59.
Steliana PERȚ, Valentina VASILE, Aida SARCHIZIAN
Abstract: Globalisation and the knowledge-based society generate multiple challenges and opportunities with respect to initial education for all and continuing training of labour force. The learning paradigm changes with respect to contents and amplitude of the learning process, and mainly its interconnection elements, their learning mechanisms and financial support. Lifelong learning has multiple functions: adjusting demand and supply of competencies on labour market, increasing the volume and share of employment, increasing productivity and competitiveness on the internal and external market, participation to community life, strengthening economic and social cohesion, active European citizenship. With respect to these exigencies, LLL in Romania – under its most diverse aspects – is yet far from the standards reached in developed countries. A strategy is necessary in the field with well-defined competencies and responsibilities of various actors, and their behaviours in accordance with the demands of the third millennium.
Keywords: education; lifelong learning; labour market.
JEL Classification: I20.
Amalendu GUHA BIKAS
Abstract: In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.
Keywords: comparative advantages; competitive advantages; multinational; relative advantages.
JEL Classification: F14.
Constantin CIUTACU, Luminița CHIVU, Diana PREDA
Abstract: This paper is an essay, a challenge to reflection and debate about the concept of company’s, or corporation’s social responsibility concept (CSR). The fundamental resorts constituting the background of promoting this concept are investigated through critical analyses. As well as the (economic, legal, moral and philanthropic manifestation forms of CSR, and its (reactive, defensive, adjustment and pro-active) typology, the (positive and negative) motivations that determine companies to adopt a more and more responsible and coherent attitude with respect to the internal dimension, and the external one of CSR. It is estimated that CSR’s viability could be proven only to the extent it will gain a planetary size, so as to assist not only to economies globalisation, but also to a “social justice globalisation”.
Keywords: social responsibility; economies globalisation.
JEL Classification: M14.
MULTIDIMENSIONAL EVALUATION OF LIVING STANDARD. TERRITORIAL DIMENSION. GAPS. MAIN REASONS, EFFECTS AND POSSIBLE REMEDIES
Maria POENARU, Constantin GRIGORESCU, Constanta PETCU, Livia CHISAGIU, Maria MOLNAR
Abstract: The paper contains analyses of regional/county profile and peculiarities with respect to some defining components of the population’s living standard. It approaches issues relating to: a) demographic changes with emphasis on population diminution, natural growth and migration movement in territorial profile; b) current situation of population’s health on counties evaluated based on some mortality and morbidity indicators – on main causes; c) tourist offer on county profile as consumption factor; d) housing conditions and policy in the housing field; e) population incomes distribution by residence and regional environs. The prepared studies make also reference to main explanatory factors, to economic and social implications on medium and long term, as well as to possible directions of action in view of improving flagrant inequalities in the analysed fields.
Keywords: living standard; health; demographic changes.
JEL Classification: I30.
CHALLENGES REGARDING THE ELITE ISSUES IN ROMANIA DURING THE PERIOD OF ACHIEVING THE FUNDAMENTALS OF A FUNCTIONAL MARKET ECONOMY
Abstract: The functional market economy, characterised firstly by competitiveness cannot be achieved but with the immediate involvement of elite within all structures and all levels. This appreciation is largely confirmed by the economic-social successes of several states, called more and more meritocracy states.The road from chances to realities is strewn in all cases with difficulties and lacks, and each time the success is for individuals who are simultaneously aware and motivated. Romania has a high potential of elite’s generation, the share of over-endowed of total population being double in comparison to the world average. For our country a development strategy built on promoting elite and ensuring the conditions for reforms and professional achievement is necessary.
Keywords: market economy; elite’s generation.
JEL Classification: J24.
Camelia CĂMĂȘOIU, Edith GANCIAROV
Abstract: Due to the importance of improving the environmental performance and of integrating the environmental protection policies in long-term strategies, the practical interest has increased for identifying, selecting and building the most expressive eco-efficiency indicators. The paper analyses the basic performance indicators for environment at micro-economic level, which might show progress on the sustainable development road. The study of the eco-efficiency was developed based on a financing pilot study of urban infrastructure investments in Calarasi county for a municipal association. The main objective was to improve gas and sewerage systems for four localities (Calarasi, Oltenita, Lehliu Gara and Budesti) under the conditions of improving the economic and ecological efficiency of the proposed project.
Keywords: eco-efficiency; environmental performance; urban infrastructure investments.
JEL Classification: Q56.