Volume 22 / 2006
Abstract: The paper studies the macroeconomic aspects and influence of FDI on banking sector, foreign external debt on medium and long term, labour market and relevant macro indicators of economic growth. The main conclusion is that the comparison of FDI advantages and disadvantages presupposes a complex methodological approach, particularised on types of activities and effects. The corroboration at local, regional and national levels of favourable and unfavourable effects, as a rule, leads to a net favourable result, yet without eliminating also the existence of some non favourable punctual results.
Keywords: FDI effects; banking sector; foreign external debt, labour market.
JEL Classification: F21.
Abstract: The research of Romania’s population incomes for a period of a century has not only an incontestable historical importance, but also a social one, as it may give answer to the question what was gained from the viewpoint of the living standard of the population in the 20th century. The issue is approached under two aspects of the economic and social polarisation process, and of the real incomes, and also with respect to the capacity of comparing the main population categories. The differing purposes of the social and ideological systems underwent during this century, and the periods of war and destruction have both triggered a sinuous incomes’ curve with considerable raises and falls of incomes. The final conclusion is that the level of average incomes from 1914 is re-established in the aftermath of the First World War only about 1929, and the year 1938 is situated beneath the pre-crises threshold. World War II and the crisis following it have diminished average incomes to 20 - 25% from the level of the year 1938 and only after 1970 the pre-war threshold is reached again, which is followed in the eighties and nineties by significant growth to be brutally annulled by the transition processes up to 2000, when the average real income is again at the level of the year 1970. It results that the development efforts of six decades, 1939-2000, from the viewpoint of incomes’ level were lost for the majority of the country’s population in favour of a minority that was made rich by the transition.
Keywords: nominal and real incomes; living standard.
JEL Classification: N30.
Abstract: Foreign direct investments (FDI) represent one of the important factors of economic development and of augmenting foreign economic relations. FDI have been for Romania during the entire transition period a “hope”, the fulfilment of which was meant to attenuate the lack of autochthonous capital required for economic restructuring and to contribute to the economic and competitiveness growth. Attracting FDI is a complicated process, determined by several factors, among which production costs, respectively labour force costs are counted to the most important. This article contains an assessment of the relationship between labour force cost and volume of entries, respectively the FDI stock, and it attempts to give an answer to the question regarding the extent in which and/or the conditions under which low wages represent a means of stimulating FDI entries.
Keywords: foreign direct investments; labour force cost; transition economies, Romania.
JEL Classification: F21; J30.
Hella GERTH, Luana MARTIN
Abstract: The present study intends: to characterise succinctly the contents of the urban exclusion phenomenon, as particular form of social exclusion; a presentation of the principles to govern the abatement of this phenomenon and of vectors to direct action. To same extent we were concerned in regards of the effect of urban development policy in the plan about living conditions, regarded as a major coordinate in assessing the living sector and as a first rank action vector at social level. All these aspects mean to outline at conceptual level the understanding given today to the urban development policy. The extent to which these coordinates at conceptual level might be found again within the concrete experience was considered through the prism of the single initiative of urban development analysed, the one of the community area regarded as reference term for justifying such a policy at the level of the national area.
Keywords: urban development policy; living conditions; urban exclusion.
JEL Classification: R10; R19.
Victor PLATON, Andreea TURDEANU
Abstract: The study following to be presented was realised as result of documentation and processing statistic information required in view of realising the research work Priority Project III: “Build-up and development of the specific SME structure, economic incentivising and development factors” developed within the National Research Programme - Economic Re-launch by Research and Innovation (RELANSIN) in the period 2004 - 2005. The present paper presents some aspects related to the territorial distribution, regional structure, expenditures and turnover of SMEs from Romania and the evolution of these parameters in the last period, within the limits of existing and available statistical data. Finally, some conclusions are highlighted for outlining the situation in its entirety, the perception of SMEs with respect to developing their own business in the context of the Romanian business climate, but also in order to underpin the main requirements, opportunities and risks that are implied by the accession to the European Union.
Keywords: regional development; regional structure; SME; european integration; regional particularities.
JEL Classification: R10.
Abstract: By creating the Common Market and coordinating the economic policies of the member states, within the European Union, it is aimed to promote economic development and improvement of the living standard. The concept of common market makes reference firstly to eliminating custom duties within the Union, to the provision of common customs’ tariff and trading policy against third countries, to eliminating the barriers to free movement of goods, services, persons and capital, and to the coordination of the member states’ legislation as well. Fiscal policy measures enforced within EU aim at compliance with the provisions of the EU Treaty and pursue to eliminate from within the Union custom taxes and all other measures with similar effects, and ensuring that competition within EU is not affected.
Keywords: fiscal policy; fiscal system; custom taxes.
JEL Classification: H20.
Emilian M. DOBRESCU
Abstract: The accession of our country to the European Union presupposes the adoption, understanding and enforcement by Romanian citizens of a new set of values among which tolerance, human rights and minority rights are accounted. These have as purpose to put to good use economically the cultural heritage from libraries, museums, and collections, but also rendering efficient the connection between the contemporary knowledge and artistic values creator and the beneficiary and consumer of such products in shops, exhibitions and theatre rooms. Therefore, it was stated that for Europe the cultural patrimony is a strategic resource with the purpose of increasing labour productivity in realising products and services based on improving access (velocity and area) to these; to this end information tools were created for assisting their change and functioning in a manner similar to the one of industrial organisations or services’ ones.
Keywords: cultural services; cultural heritage, contemporary knowledge.
JEL Classification: Z10.
Cornelia DUMITRU, Valentina VASILE
Abstract: The Europe of Knowledge means shifting to a new stage of identifying, redefining and satisfying the exigencies related to human capital. Among the basic competencies, the language ones shall play a more important role for all age groups, and all categories of jobs and professions in the economic, social and cultural fields due to the emergence of the virtual society and economy. Market internationalisation, as well as the strong outspread of English in all fields led to the emergence of the “working language” making it “strict requirement” from the perspective of the qualitative attributes of human capital. At the same time, from the viewpoint of the human capital, “English is not enough” for sustainable development at regional and international level.
Keywords: permanent education; human capital; language competencies.
JEL Classification: I20; J24.
Abstract: For Romania’s success in the intrepid attempt to join within the new coordinates of competitiveness it is indisputable and indispensable to massively and swiftly absorb direct foreign investments. Maintaining and increasing the attractiveness of foreign investments in Romania shall both face in the following period very difficult problems. We envisage, first of all, the dramatic decrease of amounts that shall be cashed from privatisation, and secondly the need of treating with more responsibility the elements that limit the attraction of foreigners to invest in Romania and, thirdly, the accession to the European Union which shall have as core issue the question of competitiveness based not that much on comparative advantages, but on the levels of the economic efficiency.
Keywords: FDI; trust capital; comparative advantages.
JEL Classification: F21.
Andreea Clara MUNTEANU
Abstract: As the importance and complexity level of technological transfer increased, the need of adequate systems of assessing the efficiency of this process became the more obvious. Introducing sustainability criteria requires the creation of a complex framework for analysing and studying efficiency that would incorporate all other three dimensions of contemporary economic development: economic, social andenvironmental.
Keywords: technology transfer; efficiency; sustainability.
JEL Classification: O30; O39.
Tiberiu Cristian AVRAMESCU
Abstract: In the last years, regional development policies and plans have paid increasing attention to the tourism sector, which is a strategicalo sector for ensuring a dynamic ans sustainable economic development of some regions having a major tourism potential.
Keywords: regional development policies; tourism potential.
JEL Classification: L83.