Volume 23 / 2006
Gheorghe ZAMAN, Zizi GOSCHIN
Abstract: Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Keywords: energy efficiency; GNI per capita; energy imports.
JEL Classification: Q43.
Abstract: The science and technology are essential to attain the Millennium objective of both the developed countries, which are close to the technological frontier, and the developing countries, that must catch up with the former ones. The sustainable economic growth implies more than the mere opening towards the technology importation or foreign financial support for the R&D, i.e., a consistent and steady technological effort made by the local companies, supported by the Government and a stable and coherent legal framework.
Keywords: R&D globalization; R&D investment; FDI absorption.
JEL Classification: F02; F21; F23; O31; O33; O38.
Emilian M. DOBRESCU
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that the reference rate influences significantly the economic evolution of a country or some large areas on which that currency circulates; we mean euro and US dollar. The monetary policy regarding the reference rate influences clearly the economic policies, and not the other way round. The banking policies regarding the reference rate influence clearly the economic-financial activity of the area in which that currency circulates.
Keywords: FDI; integration; monetary policy.
JEL Classification: F21; E52.
Abstract: Having in view the fact foreign direct investments represent a factor that stimulates host-country economic development, not only due to direct effects but also due to propagation effects, in this paper are revealed the factors determing the features of linkages between transnational corporates affiliates and indigenous firms. The respective linkages have a crucial role in propagation effects creation in economic activities and employment. Also there are presented the key – elements of gouvernamental programmes for deeping the linkages between the indigenous firms and those owned by foreign capital.
Keywords: backwards linkages; Lewis duality; labour force demand multiplicator; employee skills level.
JEL Classification: J24; J21.
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE ROLE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE POPULATION HEALTH FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Abstract: Good health is a fundamental resource for social and economic development. Higher levels of human development mean that people live longer and enjoy more healthy years of life. This paper tries to give an answer to the question why human health is a key component of a national strategy for sustainable development. For this, article presents different channels through which human health, on one hand, is an important factor of economic and environmental conditions, and on the other, human health and development are mutual reinforced. Also, what is the place of human health in the visions and actions for sustainable development at global and European levels.
Keywords: health; sustainable development; Europe.
JEL Classification: I18.
ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE NETWORK TO ENSURE THE FOREIGN INVESTMENT INFLOWS IN ROMANIA
Abstract: In a stable world it is enough to identify the standard situations and find standard solutions. In a changing world, where no standard solutions are valid, one cannot act like that. In this context, the application of innovative solutions is useful and necessary. The advisory action and assistance for the transformation of an organization gain more and more ground in the world. The innovative system of personal and professional development (individual and group ones) allows the participants to become elite professionals in specific fields.
Keywords: innovative networks; FDI; professional development.
JEL Classification: F21; O31; J24.
Abstract: In 1914 external capital funds represented 153% and under 45% in 1938 from national income. The foreign capital investments prevailed the external public credits. The positive consequences of external capital funds have evolved from predominant positive to predominant negative since the growing of capital costs. In a century for the imported capital, Romania exported 2-3 times greater values. But, without the complex external capital contribution, the modernisation of Romanian economy could not be possible.
Keywords: foreign capital; national income; external public credits.
JEL Classification: N20.
Andreea Clara MUNTEANU
Abstract: The emergence of information society and the need to comply with sustainable economic development requirements have brought to the attention of experts the issues related to the impact of using on a wide scale information and communication technologies. Within this context, impact studies and some forecasts have shown that it is necessary to identify a balance between the increase of ICT consumption demand, the need of preserving resources and environment and the social imperatives.
Keywords: information society; sustainable development; communication technologies.
Victor PLATON, Andreea TURDEANU
Abstract: The present paper has as purpose the comparative analysis of the way in which sustainable development is approached within EU and Romania. By this analysis it is aimed to identify ways and solutions for improving the future strategy of sustainable development in Romania. Most quoted definition of sustainable development is found in the Bruntland report, where sustainable development is described as „development meeting the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations to meet their own needs”. In order to make this concept operational, the greatest challenges for sustainability within EU and Member States were taken into consideration. Several of the evolutions contrary to sustainable development have as starting point the choices made in the past regarding technology and infrastructure, use of land, etc. Many of these issues have common roots. Companies and individuals often face motivations triggering production and consumption in a way contrary to sustainable development. They may be insufficiently informed about chain effects generated by their actions, or about the available alternatives. Institutional hindrances make difficult the remedy to these inadvertencies. The most acute menaces facing sustainable development originate, as a rule, from some areas of sectoral policies. For instance, the attempt to face challenges facing population health might require enforcement of active actions in industry, agriculture, fiscal policy. When the policies are enforced sector by sector, disregarding effects on other sectors, the discrepancy between sectoral policies inevitably shows. The Strategy for Sustainable Development (SSD) allows for the identification of actions to be undertaken in order to remedy the situation.
Keywords: sustainable development; sectoral policies; strategy for sustainable development.
JEL Classification: Q01.
Abstract: The ecological taxes fulfill a major function in the environment protection, but they are not a solution to every case. Sometimes, it is difficult to impose an ecological tax due to the complex phenomena. The ecological taxes are a useful tool of the policies aiming at both the increasing effectiveness of the tax systems and the economic efficiency and environment protection.
Keywords: ecotaxes; environment protection.
JEL Classification: H23.
Abstract: The paper is a brief presentation of the structures and institutions of the corporative governance, their role in the corporative control in the CEE countries in transition, i.e., insiders, banking systems, capital markets, non-banking financial agents. The paper refers to the increasing role played by the insiders, especially by the managers, in decision-making, as they tend to serve their own interests, due to their advantage concerning the business information. The development of the banking systems and capital markets may influence the governance systems, besides the non-banking financial agents, as they represent the main tools of the corporative governance. The banking system plays, by means of the credits, a special role in the corporative governance, as the debt mechanism is a means of exerting the outsiders’ control over the managers, making them act for the performance and the shareholders’ and other stakeholders’ interests. Finally, there are some conclusions concerning the features and trends of the corporative governance in some transition countries.
Keywords: insiders; banks; stock market; intermediary agents.
JEL Classification: G; G3; G34.
Abstract: The goods and services for environment (GSE) play a major role in promoting the sustainable development. This idea was largely recognized on the occasion of the Fourth Ministers’ Conference of the World Trade Organisation held in Doha, in November 2001, when it was agreed to negotiate the diminution in, or even the elimination of the tariff and non-tariff barriers to the goods and services for the environment. The Doha Declaration points out that the negotiations concerning the GSE are directly aimed at the intensification of the mutual support of the trade and environment to produce “win-win” results. Beyond the practical aspects of the “win-win” scenario, such as who makes the environment gains and who makes the trade ones or what are the implications of the liberalisation of this kind of trade for the sustainable development on the national and regional levels, etc., the most discussed issue was the definition of the concept of goods and services for the environment.
Keywords: environment services; foreign investments.
JEL Classification: F21; Q50.
Abstract: At present, the world economy is dominated by three poles – the USA, the European Union and Japan – among which there should be real co-operation to ensure the international stability on all levels. The introduction of the euro was perceived by the experts as the beginning of the competition among the currencies on the international financial markets. The European Monetary Union was conceived to cause an internal, not an external change, with an economic and financial purpose and as a further step of the European integration. Moreover, the international monetary system does not allow the European single currency to make gains that might cause losses to the US dollar. Both currencies have room in the world economy, but the euro has been beneficial to both the euro area and the rest of the world. At present, the euro is stronger than the sum of the twelve former national currencies. The consolidation of the national economies of the euro area becomes stronger due to theimpact on liquidities, to the various investment opportunities for the entities that manage the financial portfolios and the central banks that manage the foreign currency reserves. The competition among the currencies means more opportunities in the world economy: the euro is an international currency used along with the US dollar and the yen, not against them.
Keywords: world economy; currencies; European integration.
JEL Classification: E40; F39.
Abstract: The present paper is a brief introduction into the new challenges posed to language competencies from the perspective of information and communication technologies and of the knowledge society. It emphasises the importance of a common yet multilingual world wide web with shared understanding of concepts, as well as the need of improving the productivity and efficiency of translators/interpreters by making use of new developments of the translation technologies for human languages, considering the fast growing industry of translation due to globalisation.
Keywords: IT&C; human capital; language competences.
JEL Classification: J24; O39.