Volume 24 / 2007
Gheorghe ZAMAN, Zizi GOSCHIN, Aniela DANCIU
Abstract: The present paper is approaching the energy efficiency topic from the viewpoint of its trends and influence factors, in the context of requirements, criteria and principles of sustainable development. Energy efficiency is measured as ratio of GDP and energy use and its multiple factors of influence are considered. With a view to deducing some conclusions of theoretical-methodological but also of practical-applicative character, we are researching the variation in energy efficiency in European Union, but also in the case of new candidates and other countries, by means of multifactor econometric modeling.
Keywords: energy efficiency; piecewise linear regression; energy consumption,
JEL Classification: C21; C25; Q43.
ON A CARRIAGE TOWARDS EUROPE. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE ELI'S EASTERN ENLARGEMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL POLICY - THE ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE. THE EASTERN ENLARGEMENT OF THE EU
Frank BÖNKER, Luana MARTIN
Abstract: Restraining the broad area of the challenges raised by the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union only to the agricultural coordinates and only to the Romanian case, the aim of this paper is mainly to depict the context and to attempt to explain the more or less blurry colors of the Romanian agricultural panorama. The inevitable change, an adoption of new models, new methods, a different approach to the agricultural field will for sure cast a different light on the whole Romanian picture. But this is more than just a matter of time, and European aid, it is still a matter of effort and of restructuring, not only of the agriculture itself, but also of the social sphere.The perspective is evolving in a chronological manner, analyzing first the changes made in Romanian agriculture after 1989, describing than the level of Romanian agriculture during the first enlargement wave, explaining the present economic and social conditions as an outcome of a long and slow period of transition, and, in the end, trying to identify some future trends and some future challenges the Romanian agriculture and rural economy shall face.
Keywords: Eastern Enlargement, agricultural coordinates; restructuring coordinates; land tenure pattern; rural area; farms' structure.
JEL Classification: Q18; N54.
Constantin CIUTACU, Luminita CHIVU, John HURLEY
Abstract: This paper deals with demographic trends in Romania and their influence on the labour market. In this context, unemployment and emigration are factors that play a significant role in the economy. The decline in employment weakens the social security system as employers and employees have to pay greater contributions. Also, the diminution in workforce and in the number of people in paid employment and the shortage of professionals working in specialized fields of health and education are issues requiring urgent clarification.
Keywords: Mobility, Demographic Economics; Particular Labour; Markets; unemployment.
JEL Classification: J6; J8.
Steliana SANDU, Mag. Michael DINGES
Abstract: This paper is based on the Romania country review, produced as internal working papers for the research project "Monitoring and analysis of policies and public financing instruments conducive to higher levels of R&D investment". The aim of the project is to serve as support for policy developments in Europe, notably in the framework of CREST activities". It is running by a consortium of 7 partners:
UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands), consortium leader Technopolis (The Netherlands) PREST - University of Manchester (United Kingdom) ZEW (Germany) Joanneum Research (Austria) Wiseguys Ltd. (United Kingdom) and INTRASOFT International (Luxembourg). Each country review provides expert's view on the policy mix and its is to provide an exploratory analysis of the current policy mixes in place and detect the most important areas of interactions between instruments as well as new modes of policy governance that are particularly adapted (or detrimental) for the building of policy mixes.
Keywords: R&D policy mix; direct and indirect instruments; interactions.
JEL Classification: O32; O38.
Abstract: Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people's social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees), both of them having an important impact on social protection.
Keywords: demographic ageing; labour force ageing; dependence rate; social protection.
JEL Classification: J26.
Abstract: In the OECD Handbook on Economic Globalization, the term "globalization" is used to describe" the increasing internationalization of financial markets and of markets for goods and services. Globalization refers above all to a dynamic and multidimensional process of economic integration whereby national resources become more and more internationally mobile while national economies become increasingly interdependent." Understanding globalization requires theory as well as facts, but certainly the facts are key ingredients in any assessment of this important phenomenon. Indeed, the facts are necessary to test the theories and to quantify the importance of what the theories predict. New concepts are emerging as economists address the issues of globalization and they need to be better defined and measured. In particular, there is a need for standard concepts and definitions in the area of globalization and its effects. Work under way internationally on SNA 93 rev 1 should help considerably in this regard. There is a pressing need for greater coordination and cooperation in this domain. This paper, presents some of the issues involved in measurement of the indicators of globalization and in using those indicators to quantify and describe the phenomenon and to evaluate its economic impact.
Keywords: globalisation wave; interaction and integration; measurement; national accounts; statistics; trans- and multinational companies.
JEL Classification: A1; D0; E1; H0; M0; P0.
Abstract: In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving. European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports' is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions. The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.
Keywords: sources of energy; sources of pollution; energy efficiency; non-polluting fuels; environment.
JEL Classifications: N5; Q2; Q3; L72.