volume 36 / 2013
ASPECTS AND TRENDS OF CREDITING THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN LEI AND FOREIGN CURRENCY DURING THE PRE- AND POST-ACCESSION PERIODS
Abstract: The paper analyses the relationship between credits with denomination in lei and euro in the Romanian economy in the pre and post-accession periods, trying to highlight some structural characteristics of different types of deposits and loans from the viewpoint of interest rate levels and agreed maturity in the case of households and population. The main problem is related to the impact and vulnerabilities of predominance of credits denominated in euro in a national economy where the leu is the official currency. The bank lending is decomposed into lending to enterprises and lending to households in order to find out their important characteristics in an international comparative context. Which could be the optimal relationship between crediting in euro and crediting in lei?
Keywords: bank loans; credits and deposits denominated in euro versus national currency leu; vulnerabilities of euro credits; types of deposit and loan; interest rate.
Classification-JEL: E43; E51; G21.
Brînduşa TILEA, Valentina VASILE, Ioan TILEA
Abstract: Criza economică a afectat volumul şi calitatea ocupării în majoritatea activităţilor economice şi ociale, însă în proporţii diferite. Sectorul de sănătate a cunoscut o dinamică mai atenuată a reducerii ocupării însă fluxurile de personal către locuri de muncă mai bine remunerate au continuat, într-un trend mai accentuat decât anterior crizei.
Incapacitatea unor ţări de a oferi locuri de muncă de calitate în sectorul public de sănătate a determinat migraţia specialiştilor în sectorul privat sau în alte ţări. Un factor care a intensificat aceste fluxuri l-a reprezentat politica de austeritate severă din perioada crizei din sectorul public, manifestată în special prin reduceri de personal şi diminuări ale salariilor. Aceste măsuri de criză, în cazuri precum România, au fost aplicate uniform pentru întreg personalul plătit din bugetul statului, fără să se ţină seama de deficitul cronic de ocupare (în număr absolut, dar mai ales structural, pe domenii de specializare) din domenii precum sănătatea şi învăţământul.
În lucrarea de faţă ne propunem să prezentăm principalele particularităţi ale mobilităţii personalului din sectorul de sănătate (cu accent asupra physicians brain drain) şi impactul asupra capitalului uman şi pieţei muncii din România. Se identifică o serie de măsuri de politici pentru reţinerea specialiştilor în ţara de origine şi asigurarea ocupării în locuri de muncă de calitate.
Cuvinte-cheie: brain drain pentru medici; ocupare; mobilitatea geografica a fortei de munca; finantarea sectorului de sanatate.
Clasificare JEL: J61; J21; F22; O15; H51 .
Alexandru STRATAN, Marcel CHISTRUGA
Abstract:The article presents how the Moldovan economy evolved in the post crisis period and how the major policy incentives were implemented. An assessment of the major problems of Moldova after the crisis is undertaken. The authors emphasize the importance of elimination of fiscal burden, administrative burden and access to finance. At the end the authors investigate and propose anti-crisis policy recommendations and solutions for the identified problems.
Keywords: anti-crisis measures; administrative and fiscal burden; economic activity.
Classification-JEL: H00; E60; E61.
ANALYSIS ON THE ONGOING CRISIS. HISTORICAL ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MOTIVATIONS (PART 1)
Abstract: If politicians and economists who have so much lavished to open China to the Western Area should only had paid more attention to the historical and economic analysis brought to completion by scholars such as Carlo Maria Cipolla, Fernand Braudel, Immanuel Wallerstein and others, most likely they would have used more caution when making their decisions, and the crisis would have been strongly reduced. Hereby we intend to clear the reason for these beliefs. By a historical way of approach, we will be able to identify two different types of roots considered basis for the current crisis: the economic one and the other one being consequent that has its own roots purely in the financial sector. Actually, we make reference to the two faces of the crisis that combinig gave life to a depression time, so heavy and not easy to be solved to be simply defined by some as a systemic crisis. In the final analysis, as a further support to our hypothesis, we will take into appropriate consideration also the influence that the crisis has had on European companies and therefore had negative influences on corporate governance.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Banking System, Economic Histor, International Financial Markets.
Classification-JEL: G01; G24; G38; N00.
Napoleon POP, Valeriu IOAN-FRANC
Abstract: Thinking of what a global currency could be or represent - an idea on which the authors have strong public opinions - the question of the central banks role and conduct during the last crisis has become not only complex but a changing one. As regards this latest process, we feel that we separate from something rational we have been used to, and it seems we undergo, as professionals, a hardly acceptable conversion.
Keywords: Central Banks and Their Policies; Fiscal Policies; Government Policy and Regulation.
Classification-JEL: E4; E5; E6; E18.
Abstract:This paper deals with the problem of periodisation of Romania’s economic history during the 1860-2010 period. In order to achieve the objective, several methods are used. A first method is the identification of decennial economic cycles. The second method is to emphasize the impact of economic transitions and other changes in the institutional framework, which Romania has faced during the analysed period in the periodisation of economic history. The third approach is to reveal the advantages of taking into consideration bi-decennial economic cycles for analysis of long-run evolution of the economy of a country.
Keywords: decennial economic cycle; economic transition; bi-decennial economic cycle; institutional framework;; functional market economy.
Classification-JEL: B41; E30; E32; J11.
Emilia VASILE, Ion CROITORU
Abstract:The target costing method involves implementing a homogeneous set of tools on cost planning, cost management and cost control. This method aims to reduce costs by knowing the different stages of a product cycle, analyzing the costs of each phase and improving the technologies and manufacturing processes. The managers of economic organizations are using the target costing method to determine with certainty the limit cost of their new products and to set a target price of the product in order to obtain a higher profit. The target costing method is not only a method of costing calculation but also a modern management method that uses evaluated techniques regarding market study, value analysis, reducing diversity, manufacturing technology and the relationship with suppliers and customers. Target cost is an estimated production cost, calculated on the basis of a forecast competitive selling price and a projected profit margin. It has values between the allowable cost, which is determined by the market according to the competition and the estimated cost, which is determined according to the existing means of production and the technologies used by the organization.
Keywords: target cost; costs calculation; market cycle; production organization; product.
Classification-JEL: L00; L11; L15.
Mostafa SALIMIFAR, Mehdi BEHNAME
Abstract: The aim of this research is the study of information and communication technology effects on productivity in Islamic countries. We have applied a balanced panel data model. Hausman (1978) test shows that we should apply fixed effects model. We have estimated our model for Islamic countries for the period of 1990-2010. The results show that gross domestic product, openness, human capital, capital formation, labor force and information and communication technology have positive impact on productivity. Therefore, these countries can increase their productivity with augmentation of expenditures on ICT.
Keywords: Islamic countries; Information and Communication Technology; Productivity; Panel Data.
Classification-JEL: D24; L63.
A COMPARISON IN TERMS OF CARBON EMISSION, COST AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE MOST USED TECHNOLOGIES IN THE YOUNG THINNED STANDS The CASE OF ROMANIA
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Gheorghe IGNEA, Ilie OPREA, Valentina CIOBANU, Florin DINULICA
Abstract: The reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions is a challenge to todays industries (as it is stated by the Kyoto Protocol) as a prerequisite of sustainable development and environment protection. Usually, the last ones are regarded as complementary strategies in attaining the overall goal. Timber harvesting represents one of the most technical components of the overall timber production. In most cases it is achieved by using heavy machinery which is deployed in the mature stands to be harvested. The participation level of the machinery, trends to increase in the case of stands from which the primary production results. Due to the increased densities of the stands (in thinning),frequently animal means are used for timber logging, which can be associated with increased capacity mechanized means. This paper presents an evaluation of production efficiency, fuel consumptions, costs and carbon emissions using comparisons between animal logging and mechanized logging means. As resulted from the study, the utilization of animal logging is less efficient from the production and cost point of view but it is cleaner (no carbon emissions). Data presented in this paper may provide the necessary tools for developing policies related to timber harvesting and carbon emissions.
Keywords: animal logging, thinning; evaluation; efficiency; carbon emissions.
Classification-JEL: D62; L11; O33; Q23.
LA RÉGULATION LOCALE ENTRE INSTITUTIONS FORMELLES ET INFORMELLES: ANALYSE PAR APPLICATION AU CAS DE LA VILLE DE KSAR-HELLAL (TUNISIE)
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to detect the degrees of relevance of formal and informal institutions at the level of local regulation, as well as their effects on the companies productivity of in the area in question. Indeed, by an analysis of the territory of the town of Ksar-Hellal, one noted that informal institutions, apprehended by the trust and the collective punishment, contribute beside the penal formal institutions, to channel the relational behaviors of the hilalian companies but with a less effectiveness. Similarly, the strong contribution of exogenous institutions in boosting productivity, compared to that of endogenous institutions, can only encourage the decision makers to improve the quality of formal regulation, and this at the expense of any form of regulation built by values commonly shared by the local community.
Keywords: Régulation locale; institutions formelles; institutions informelles; productivité; Tunisie.
Classification-JEL: O12; K2; L51.