Volume 41 / 2015

Analysis of Structural Changes in the Labour Market in Romania

Author: Silvia PISICA, Valentina VASILE, Ana Maria CIUHU (DOBRE)

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to reveal the changes in the labour market in Romania, by means of its structure. The opportunities for sustainable employment and efficiency are underlined by analyzing data on employment by activity and sector of national economy, by status in employment and by major occupation groups.Based on the effects of the dynamics in the employment structure we make to propose some specific recommendations for policy instruments and measures regarding the quality of employment. The amendment of the quality of employment could be achieved by general policies for adjusting the supply and demand, as well as by specific policies for managing labour mobility and for increasing the efficiency of the presence of youth on the labour market.
Classification-JEL: E24; J21; J23
Keywords: Labour market, Employment, Sectors of national economy


Modelling factors of Student test statistics dispersion in a multiple linear regression 

Author: Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

Abstract: One of the main objectives of this paper is to show that some algebraical properties of the Student test statistics demonstrated in F.M. Pavelescu (2014) and the use of a proposed new indicator – Synthesis of the Transformed Form of Student Test statistics - for the case of linear regressions with three explanatory are valid for the general case of linear regressions with n explanatory variables. Also, we propose a re-grouping of the modeling factors of Transformed Form Student Test statistics, which is in line with the ideas of Glauber and Ferrar (1967) on the definition of collinearity and of Belsey (1991) on the impact of collinearity on Student Test Statistics. In this context, the methodology proposed permits the identification of modeling factors contribution to the dispersion of Transformed Form of Student statistics. At the end of the paper a numerical example is presented in order to show that algebraical properties of the Student test statistics demonstrated in case of a linear regression with three explanatory variables are true also when the number of explanatory variables is higher than three. The respective numerical example is also an opportunity for a practical use of the proposed factorial analysis methodology of the dispersion of the Transformed Form of the Student Test statistics.
Keywords: Transformed Form of Student Test statistics, factorial analysis, reference value, adjusted multiplier, coefficient of collinear refraction
Classification-JEL: C13, C20, C51, C52

The Economic Value of Time - A computational model for estimating household labour time 

Author : Nicoleta CARAGEA

Abstract : The economic value of household work hours is still a topic of great interest in economic research. Time allocated for housework can be regarded as working time used to produce goods and services which can replace market goods and services. An argument in this sense consists of the positive externalities for consumption within the family. An example is the amount of time that mothers spend at work, but they outsource the children care services. Examples could continue: cooking, housekeeping and home care, elder care or other household work activities. In this paper, we propose a computational model for estimating household labour time on the basis of the data provided by three surveys: Time use survey, Labour cost survey, Labour force survey.
Keywords : household working time, labour cost, labour force, leisure
Classification-JEL : J22, J31

The ageing workforce and employability 

Author : Livia CHISAGIU

Abstract : One of the most concerning contemporary developments in the European Area is population and workforce ageing, even the negative dynamics of working age population for the 2010-2030 time-horizon. Ageing triggers not only major challenges for economy and society, but also opportunities when the human capital represented by older workers together with other target-groups such as low-skilled adult population, early school leavers and migrants is valorised efficiently. The complex requirements and the rapid development on the labour market impose as sine qua non condition for valorising the human potential of elderly their responsible involvement in continuing vocational education and training, for maintaining and developing work ability. The concept of work ability is developed within the specialised literature from the perspective of its determinants and triggered effects. Its major determinants are: physical and mental health, the social relationships skills, educational level and competences’ enhancement; values, attitudes, motivation and the working environment, and leadership. Satisfying this work ability conditioning has the following certain effects: employability, productivity and quality of work, productive ageing, quality of life and well-being. Unfortunately, the investment in learning later in life presupposes also the existence of some barriers: on the side of the elderly employees we mention the closeness to the pensioning age and the inadequate support of the employer in terms of allotted time and training costs; on the side of the employer very often the perception that elderly have lower training openness prevails. Consequently, employers would have to be the main providers of the training, even though they are aware of the negative impact of ageing that does not always provide for an adequate training infrastructure within the company, which constitutes the content of the so-called “ageing paradox”.
Keywords : ageing workforce; work ability; determinants; effects; employability; productive ageing
Classification-JEL : J11; J21; I25; J24

The relationship between the education system and the inflows of FDI for the Central and East European EU new member states 

Author : Vasile Alecsandru STRAT

Abstract : The relationship between the inflows of FDI received by a country and its educational system is still a topic under debate. The present work analyzes the linkages created between the inflows of FDI received by a host country and some major aspects related to the educational system using a methodology based on the T-Y procedure. The study uses cross-national yearly data, for the period 1990–2012 for a sample of five new EU member states from Eastern Europe. The study provides evidences that there are important relationships between the educational system and the inflows of FDI (for the analyzed sample). 
Keywords : Foreign Direct Investments, school enrolment, human capital, causality relation, Toda-Yamamoto procedure
Classification-JEL : C01, C32, F62, I23, F21, O11 

Quelques considérations relatives a l’intégration des travailleurs immigrants en Roumanie 

Author : Brîndusa MARIAN

Abstract : Work force free movement in the European Union has become the fourth pillar of the Common Market since 1968. Even at that moment analysis were done concerning the impact that free movement can have on European Union member-states. The studies done up until present show that work force free movement has brought about changes at the level of EU member states from a demographic point of view as well as a economic and social one. Free movement of work force takes into considerations both the emigrations and immigrations phenomena. The studies in Romania so far have stressed out mostly the element of emigration of Romanian citizens due to more accentuated economic and social effects. However, we consider that the immigration phenomenon can not be neglected taking into account the fact that Romania lacks qualified work force and that birth rate is dropping. The social, economic conditions and the legislative provisions in this moment lead to a transition period of our country towards immigrants and the problems immigrants face in the process of integration, as presented in the scholarly literature.
Keywords : immigration, integration, work force free movement
Classification-JEL : K31; K37; K40

The regional competitiveness in Romania.  A panel multivariate approach 

Author : Mihaela SIMIONESCU

Abstract : The main objective of this study is to assess the regional competitiveness in Romania by two alternative and quantitative approaches: the panel data approach and the multivariate analysis. The use of these methods is almost inexistent for Romanian counties, even if there are many studies for other countries. For the 42 Romanian counties a dynamic panel model was estimated for the period from 2006 to 2013, the real GDP rate depending on this variable with 3 lags and by the research and development (R&D) expenses. On the other hand, a principal component analysis was conducted to determine the factors with an important contribution to explaining the regional competitiveness in the Romanian counties. In 2006, 59.93% of the variation in regional competitiveness is explained by aspects related to R&D activities, while aspects related to growth and labour market occupation explain only 29.95% of the variation. In 2013, 62.71% of the variation in regional competitiveness is explained only by aspects of the labour market, the economic growth being independent of this component.
Keywords : competitiveness, research and development, dynamic panel, principal component analysis
Classification-JEL : C23, O11

Teachers' work style development as means of preventing their high staff turnover rates  

Author : Zenobia NICULITA

Abstract : Defining teachers' work styles from an organizational rather than an educational point of view, the present study focuses on their abilities to manage their time and professional projects and on exploring a training strategy of developing those skills. The research has been carried out on a small sample of students in teacher training programs (undergraduate and graduate level) participating in a 11 weeks training project focused on exercising and self evaluating progress. The comparison between pretest and post test measures of time and project management abilities has demonstrated a significant improvement of these skills.
Keywords : work style, time and project management skills
Classification-JEL : M53

The Role of Analogy in Problem Solving and Increasing Creativity 

Author : Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU

Abstract : The present paper discusses aspects more extensively developed in the PhD program research paper. This article proposes thinking techniques which could be used in different fields of activity and different business functions to stimulate creativity and problem solving ability in order to find solutions characterized by high originality for various challenges. The suggested thinking techniques use analogy, which is the most important operation of thinking and creativity. The discussed techniques could be of an important help for European countries in reaching their strategic objectives of the economic policies in line with to Europe 2020 Strategy: the creation of knowledge, the technological innovation and the increasing economic competitiveness.
Keywords : creativity, problem solving, analogy, innovation, economy
Classification-JEL : O310

The Impact of Solvency II Directive upon the Perspectives of the Horizon 2020 Programme 

Author : Silvia DEDU

Abstract : This paper focuses on analyzing the characteristics and recent evolution of the Romanian insurance market. Comparisons between Romania and other European countries will be performed and the relationship between the development of the insurance market and the economic development will be investigated. The causal relationships and the degree of interdependence between these phenomena will be described using quantitative techniques. The results obtained will enable us to assess the expected performance and impact of Solvency II Directive from the perspective of Horizon 2020 Programme in Romania and in the broader context of the European Union countries.
Keywords : Solvency II, risk management, insurance, sustainable economic growth
Classification-JEL : C19, C58, G22, G28, O11, O16

Costs calculated by the ABC system for underlying managerial decisions 

Author : Bica ZORLESCU , Margareta PENEOASU , Bogdan NEGOESCU

Abstract : This article aims to show the importance of cost information and economic effects in making management decisions. Management accounting contributes to planning, budgeting and controlling costs. All economic entities are concerned with the cost elements generated by the accomplishment of their activities. Specifically, to analyze whether the data and information obtained in the ABC provides a more relevant information support, able to lead to a substantial improvement in decision-making. The ABC system, whose approach is still the subject of numerous queries and discussions, gives answer to some concerns regarding the current management control, both in terms of cost management and performance. The accurate relevance of full cost obtained by following the causal links between the products and the consumption of resources is an important advantage in terms of using this cost in making decisions regarding strategic management product portfolio. 
Keywords : managing accounting, costs, managerial decisions, costs calculation, financial analysis
Classification-JEL : M40, M41

The Estimates of Restoration Interventions regarding the Wooden Churches in the Buzãu County 

Author : Elena-Teodora NECULA

Abstract : A number of multilateral conventions adopted under the aegis of the UNESCO and the European Councile support the protection of cultural heritage as a prerequisite for cohesion and European solidarity, being mentioned in the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. The aim of this paper is an economic analysis on the interventions of conservation - restoration of the Buzau wooden churches. The research was performed on six wooden churches declared historical monument swhich present different degrees of degradation and the high difficulty of restoration interventions finally led to an estimate of increasing values. Through this evaluation new strategies can be formulated in order to develop and promote tourism in the Buzau County.
Keywords : historical monuments; wooden churches, UNESCO, European Councile
Classification-JEL : B41, C02, C18, O38, Z11, Z12

Strategic options of public policy for developing the bioeconomy sector in Romania 

Author : Marius PASCULEA

Abstract : The bioeconomy sector is one of the smart specialization areas for the 2014-2020 strategic cycle both in the "Romania’s National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation" and “Romania’s National Competitiveness Strategy”. The selection criterion was the research of the scientific and commercial potential of the areas that could make Romania more competitive internationally. But how to achieve and stimulate the development of this field was not indicated. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to identify the priorities of Romania’s government for an advanced development of this sector and to highlight the subsectors that the Romanian authorities should be more focused on. The aim is to formulate the guiding principles, the strategic approaches and the measures necessary to achieve the potential of the bioeconomy sector in Romania. The method used was to analyze the best practices used by countries that have a national strategy for the bioeconomy sector and started the development in this field.
Keywords : bioeconomy sector, public policy, biomass, bioresources
Classification-JEL : Q26, Q28

Statistical analysis the development of breast cancer; influencing factors  

Author : Iuliana PANTELIMON

Abstract : The incidence of breast cancer in Romania is about 66.2/100,000 and the mortality around 22.1/100,000. The European Association for the Study of Obesity shows that the prevalence of the obesity is 10-25% for men and 10-30% for women. Data from literature sustain that the costs linked with breast cancer management are about 126 billion euro in 2009, 40% representing medical costs. Increasing of the survival and the prolongation of the time to progression is very important because it means there is a significant decrease inthe cost linked to: oncological medication, the hospitalization days, diagnosis investigation and also a prolongation of the time in wich the patient is integrated socio-economically and also in the family. An important indicator in this disease would be the years of potential life lost.. Material and methods: in this paper, we followed the evolution of 50 patients treated between January 2009 and December 2014 within “Elias” University Emergency Hospital. The above mentioned patients were monitored from diagnosis until the first imagistic documented progression. Several parameters were monitored, amongst which the body mass index, time to progression, age distribution, Ki 67 proliferation index and also the correlation between the parameters. Results: The body mass of the majority of the patients (22) was between 30 and 35 kg/m2, thus being considered obese. The average value of the time to progression for the monitored patients was 40,98 months, in concordance with the values found in literature. One particular aspect of the monitored patients was the high frequency of breast cancer within the group of patients under age of 50, followed by 45-50 group and the last was the 35-45 group. Conclusions: The excess of adipose tissue could represent a negative prognostic factor in the breast cancer progression. One important aspect is that this prognostic factor could be influenced by creating policies aimed at weight losing and healthy life-style. Breast cancer occurs predominantly with women within the 4-5 age decade, thus, the mortality and the morbidity generated by it determines the loss of many potential life years and a social-economic exclusion of the respective women.
Keywords : breast cancer, mortality, social-economic insertion, young patients, years of potential life lost, obesity
Classification-JEL : I1

An economic approach to phytosanitary treatments with organic substances in orchards  

Author : Andrei DUMITRASCU

Abstract : Fruit growing is of particular importance in terms of food and food security. The pest resistance against chemical pesticides and the environmental degradation imposed the research of selective and biodegradable pesticides. The paper focuses on achieving a Cost-Benefit Analysis of phytosanitary treatments in orchards by means of nonpolluting substances, using several performance indicators as: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost ratio (B/C). The study found that the validation of this technology will have favorable effects on environment protection due to the gradual replacement of chemicals with green products, opening new ways in introducing high precision equipments. 
Keywords : fruit growing; biodegradable pesticides; phytosanitary treatments; cost-benefit analysis; pest control technology
Classification-JEL : O33; Q01; Q16; Q57

SWOT analysis of poultry meat chain in Romania  

Author : Lucian LUCA

Abstract : The analysis of the poultry meat sector in Romania consists of a detailed description of the chain, which implies both the identification of relations between the players in this chain and the estimation of the quantities of products - live animals, carcass meat and processed products - that circulate among these. When describing the poultry chain in Romania the advantages and disadvantages of the bipolar structure of the livestock sector is presented. The paper tries to identify certain answers to the challenges of maintain the competitiveness of poultry farming sector and to formulate certain agricultural and food policy recommendation that results in reaching the desideration to rise poultry meat export.
Keywords : poultry meat chain, poultry farming, poultry meat export
Classification-JEL : Q11; Q13

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the public health food and tourism units in Romania  

Author : Margareta PENEOASU , Bica ZORLESCU , Cristina ANDREI

Abstract : The problem of people and countries is laziness and indifference in finding solutions to this kind of situations”, this quotation of Albert Einstein is representative in defining “the financial crisis”. This being said, from the beginning of the crisis, there were false pretences of the economic growth which, by the actors involved, consumers have determined chaotic expenses/uncontrolled consumption and a rapid expansion of the capital markets. This determined the premises of the economic and financial crisis in most European countries. The negative effects of the specific initial phase of the new crisis came from the internationally reported problems. They were felt in Romania from the very beginning of 2008 as a result of the international financial crisis and they were measured, from a quantitative point of view, by professionals/ analysts and bankers. This paper desires to be a presentation of the effect problematic which the Romanian financial and economic crisis exerts over the investments made in health food and tourism units and over their potential to overcome constraints/barriers which have appeared.
Keywords : economic and financial crisis, investments, economic potential, fighting effects, public health and tourism
Classification-JEL : M40, M41

How does the middle class look like in Romania ?  

Author : Andoria Cristina IONITA

Abstract : Besides the scientific enterprise of trying to define the dimension and characteristics of the middle class, we try to imagine an artistic find of middle class, seeing it as a woman in the beginning of maturity, capable to come through her own capabilities and her knowledge acquired through educational process, a person who can change the society around her with her innovative ideas, bringing the progress. The documentation activity about this subject lead us to the conclusion that the image of the middle class depends very much on the way you choose to look at her. You can look at her from the distance, without the possibility to say many things about it, if you choose some general criteria in order to separate middle class from other population groups. Or, you can look very closely at it, having in this way the possibility to see all the details of this image. Everything depends on the choices made in defining the criteria which separate middle class from the other social classes. Measurement of middle class is not an easy task due to several reasons. Firstly, it requires the classification of population into social classes, for which it is necessary to take into consideration some objective criteria, as levels of income, occupation or levels of education, skills or others, but also subjective criteria as the prestige of the profession or company, manual or non-manual character of work, social category of family or residential area where the person was born. The larger the number of criteria taken into account is, the bigger the subjectivity of the classification is. Secondly it is difficult to find availability of data sources allowing the estimation of middle class. Ordinary data sources, namely the sample surveys, use major classification classes, which make the analysis less detailed. This article proposes to present two first perspectives, strictly quantitative, regarding the measurement of middle class in Romania, through the population incomes and respectively through the professional categories. For each of those two perspectives, the article presents the main characteristics of the persons defined as middle class.
Keywords : middle class, incomes, professional category
Classification-JEL : I31, Z130, B41

The regional consumption credit . Trends, structures and territorial relevance 

Author : Ivona STOICA

Abstract : The current paper analyses the territorial structure of loans to housings and nonfinancial corporations, based on information provided by banks, Romanian legal entities, branches of foreign banks in Romania, savings and lending banks for housing and Cooperative Central Bank, presented on the National Bank of Romania’s website. The main objective of the research is related to peculiarities of the county distribution by the size of credits for consumption and housing. Loans for consumption and real estates refer to the population segment and the credits of non-financial institutions are mainly devoted to operational activities and investments. Our comparison for both population and nonfinancial institutions at the county level offer the possibility to determine which are the most important users of banking credits, at county level, in the post crisis period, in Romania.
Keywords : consumption credit; housing credit, trends, counties
Classification-JEL : M31; D1; E2; R2

Social , economic and financial inclusion of the rural area 

Author : Otilia MANTA

Abstract : The social and economic gap between the welfare of the rural population in developed European countries and that of Romania has always been great, but never like this. A great scholar of the nation said, years ago, that civilization of the Romanian people was born in the villages. A sociologist or economist of the past 50 years, paraphrasing the great Lucian Blaga, must painfully recognize that poverty was born but still perpetuated in the villages. Few were the moments of some welfare for the Romanian peasant during this period. This work is based on this reality and try to synthesize all the ideas of scientists, specialists and those who are at the head of the rural society, able to remove the Romanian village from this state of decline. Once we entered the EU community, willingly or not, the Romanian authorities of any political orientation would be required to submit new principles and rules governing the course of economic activity.
Keywords : social, inclusion, economic, financial, microfinance, poverty, economic models, family farms
Classification-JEL : Q0, Q1

La qualite de la vie urbaine. Les indicateurs de la qualite environnementale urbaine  

Author : Andreea Monica STATE

Abstract : L'urbanisation est un processus qui vise, généralement, la croissance de la qualité de vie en  créant un environnement ou l'acces aux équipements de qualité supérieure économique et social est facile. L'espace urbain a conduit a l'évolution du mode de vie, mais sa qualité est une question qui mérite l'attention, en raison de son déclin dans les grandes agglomérations. La qualité de vie est un élément fondateur des préoccupations a la fois politiques et sociétales et fait partie des enjeux urbains actuels. L'exigence de qualité devient la tâche du processus « Benchmarking », en intégrant la meilleure pratique par le quel peut etre mesurée et la compétitivité urbaine. Dans ce travail, les indicateurs urbains sont étudiés dans le contexte du rapport Observatoire Urbain, réalisée en 2010, par IRES, qui est une approche de recherche qui vise a déterminer et mesurer les indicateurs de qualité de vie dans les grandes villes, en Roumanie. L'étude se concentre sur les dimensions clés, pour déterminer la perception des citoyens urbains sur un ensemble fondamental d'indicateurs de la qualité de vie. Les informations obtenues au moyen d'entrevues, la méthode CATI, permettent la description de l'état actuel de la communauté urbaine selon les indicateurs de la qualité de vie sélectionnés pour construire une gestion efficace de l'administration locale. Le but des données obtenues se traduit par une bonne gouvernance communautaire, aux fins de son développement et de co-participation des citoyens a la vie communautaire.
Keywords : qualité de vie; indicateurs; benchmarking;  compétitivité; développement
Classification-JEL : H75, O18, R11, R50

“In – house” software module for projectile’s drag coefficient evaluation in case of small geometrical dimension tolerances: A solution for cost reducing 

Author : George SURDU

Abstract : Drag coefficient is an important parameter in exterior ballistic which is used to evaluate the shape of projectile trajectory. The purpose of this study was to create a simple instrument for drag coefficient preliminary evaluation using the existing drag laws: 1943 law, 1930 law or Siaccis's law and his geometrical dimensions important for ballistics. The instrument mentioned before is represented by a software module which is based on an existing theoretical model, properly ajusted, for drag coefficient evaluation. This software module has the ability to evaluate also the influences for some geometrical dimension tolerances of projectile's shape against drag coefficient.
Keywords : true value, statistics, efficiency, software module, ballistics, geometrical tolerances
Classification-JEL : Y80

The use of Earth Observation data in preventing and overcoming the environmental risk  

Author : Laura-Ionela MUNTEANU

Abstract : In recent years, the various methods of combining and exploring the Earth observation data provided valuable information for monitoring and evaluating both the natural environment, but also the anthropic one. In this paper, we focus on digital elevation modeling using SAR images and the opportunities they provide to improve the economic life of the society
Keywords : environmental challenges; sustainable development; satellite images; digital elevation modeling;
Classification-JEL : Q01; Q24; Q56 

Innovation and research in agriculture - The main component for a sustainable food security development in the world and Romania  

Author : Bogdan Ion BAZGA

Abstract : In present days and for future generations, the responsibility to protect ”life” has become crucial. A sustainable development of standards for generation welfare has to cover our needs for food security, which is a top priority for the worldwide population. Therefore, one of the biggest challenges is the discovery of a new way to change and improve food productivity, i.e. ”to innovate”. Innovation is the main component of a sustainable development that produces food and nutrition security. The concept of innovation is translated into institutional, technological and social improvements for the agriculture system, as well as the interaction between people and institutions, responsible for demanding, supplying and disseminating knowledge, which is a valuable asset for crop yields and to reduce poverty in developing countries. Research and development activities stand at the base of a sustainable agricultural system to overcome the lack of competitiveness and the deficiencies in the food market profitability. Innovation in rural farming and its core products, such as grains, the principle resources for food security, will remain a primary engagement to exceed insecurity.
Keywords : innovation, knowledge transfer, sustainable development, food security
Classification-JEL : Q02, Q17, Q18

Corruption Perception Index - the radiographic instrument of this phenomenon

Author: Bogdan TEODORESCU

Abstract: This article has been prompted by the importance of the provisions of the treaty for the accession of Romania to the European Union, which contains safeguard clauses and transitory measures, as well as the specific provision that, if serious deficiencies exist in adopting and applying the acquis in the fields of economy, internal market and justice and internal affairs, heavy sanctions can be adopted. In this respect, the accession also had a series of specific accompanying measures, instituted in order to prevent or to remedy various deficiencies in the fields of food safety, agricultural funding, judiciary reform and fight against corruption. The goal of the article is to make a statistical analysis of the Instruments totake radiographies of Corruption of Romania in comparison with the other countries of the EU and the rest of the world, to identify the progress made by our country in the reform of the judiciary and in the fight against corruption. The main subject of the scientific research is determined by the necessity to allow citizens and enterprises in Romania to enjoy the benefit of their rights as EU citizens, because without irreversible progress in these fields, Romania risks being incapable to correctly apply EU law.
Classification-JEL: D73
Keywords: corruption, perception, index, measures, preemptive